History Of Programming Languages Timeline

These proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN History of Programming Languages (HOPL) conference are a record, in the words of those who helped make the history, of a baker's dozen of the languages that set the tone of most of today's programming. Explain the importance of programming style concepts (documentation, mnemonic names, indentation). The history of the solving of these problems is the history of the computer. Ada is a language designed to support concurrency: many processes running in parallel. The dominant language of the 1990s is the focus of this week's podcast (Season 3, Episode 4) and explores its highs and lows since it was introduced over 30 years ago. r: Jump to query result. It’s a timeline rife with victories and tragedies, with one thing always leading to the next. Disciplines are defined and recognised by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Timeline Flattening; Video Scene Classification; This is the final case study in the “Property-Based Testing in a Screencast Editor” series. The Computer History Timeline timeline provides fast information via timelines which highlight the key dates and major historical significance in a fast information format. A History of Computer Programming Languages Ever since the invention of Charles Babbage’s difference engine in 1822, computers have required a means of instructing them to perform a specific task. 1960s - ALGOL, LISP, BASIC; 1970s - PASCAL, C, SMALLTALK; 1980s - C++, Objective C, PERL; 1990s - Python, JAVA, RUBY; Recent - SWIFT, C#, GO. The C programming language is one of the foundation or base-language of many programming languages today. Many are simply for teaching or language research. This is less obvious on a primitive device such as the abacus where input, output and processing are simply the act of moving the pebbles into new positions, seeing the changed positions, and counting. We have only opened this history section a few months ago. MATH-MATIC is an earlier programming language written in 1955 by Charles Katz and their team, under the direction of Grace Hopper. Although the two programming languages of Java and JavaScript sound very similar, they are not the same thing. INTRODUCTION: Python is a programming language that has continually increased in popularity and use since its conception in the late 1980s. Jan 1, 1948. History The term BASIC stands for: Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. 2 History of Language Development. Submitted By - Udara Sandaruwan. History of C++ The C++ programming language has a history going back to 1979, when Bjarne Stroustrup was doing work for his Ph. a High-level languages are more difficult to learn. The History of Python A series of articles on the history of the Python programming language and its community. 1954 – the first high level programming languages are used by John Backus and IBM in the US (FORTRAN or formula translation) and Tony Brooker in Manchester (the. If there is no code in your link, it probably doesn't belong here. She created the first compiler, which modern computer languages depend on. This means is known as a programming language. The history of conceptual modeling. In a hierarchical structure there is a grouping of things into levels. Brian Kernighan and Ritchie together developed C, an influential programming language. A History of Modern Computing, 2nd. The origins of pgen. UNLOCKING DIFFICULTIES Compiler -Computer software that translates (compiles) source code written in a high-level language (e. They are frequently limited and almost useless. Sir Tim Berners-Lee is a British computer scientist. This is because each mnemonic along with the addressing modes and operands of an instruction translates rather directly into the numeric representations of that particular instruction, without much context or. History of C Programming Language. So I tried making mine, comments and critics are welcome! this is based on this graphviz file created with language-study. How It Started We first saw the "History of Programming Languages" diagram, created by Éric Lévénez, while visiting our French office. The first versions of Visual Basic were intended to target Windows 3. TIMELINE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. Programming Languages Programming languages introduced. Now there are more than 2,500 documented programming languages! O’Reilly has produced a poster called History of Programming Languages (PDF), which plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline. The advantages of programming games in a high-level programming languages is that people can understand it and code it much more easily. Though PHP had seen several rewrites up to this point, version 3 represented a complete overhaul of the software and its final step into becoming a complete programming language. It is based on an original diagram created by Eric Levenez (www. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Computer Languages History Computer Languages Timeline Below, you can see the preview of the Computer Languages History (click on the white zone to get a bigger image):. History of Lua. From classification and history, to controversies this book con. Search above or Click below. technologies as new languages have emerged, developed, and matured. Let's take a look at the life of the Ruby programming language. But their history stretches back more than 2500 years to the abacus: a simple calculator made from beads and wires, which is still used in some parts of the world today. The history of JavaScript has been long and full of bumps. The history of java starts with Green Team. A Brief Guide to the History of the Internet. After 7-8 years C++ came into existence which was first example of object oriented programming. It is unfortunate because their long-standing familiarity will make it hard for us to understand and adopt new programming. The Evolution of Programming Languages [5] by Peter Grogono. Mother Tongues of Computer Languages. The History of Java Technology See a text-version of the Java History Timeline. This timeline includes fifty of the more than 2500 documented programming languages. esc: Leave current input field/textarea. Ever wonder who first introduced programming language, what lead to the programming language and how did programming language evolved. Programming Languages Programming languages introduced. Multiplication, or even adding numbers that took more than one word, was done in several steps. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms. In 1957, Backus became project leader of the IBM FORTRAN project, which became the most popular scientific programming language in history and is still in use today. 1964 - Third generation computers were introduced. Programming language - formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Hart, and Mike Levin. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature since then, with real (and fraudulent) mechanical devices actually demonstrated to behave with some degree of intelligence. Until very recently, BASIC (in the form of Visual BASIC and Visual BASIC. The timeline presented is therefore far from complete. -- in English or French? Your site can have an address of "www. However, you do use the results and the end products of today's software programming are soft programs that are easy to use by the consumer. Is there an endangered species list for programming languages? If there is, Command Line Heroes suggests that Perl is somewhere between vulnerable and critically endangered. Whether you want to learn something new or need answers to tough technical questions, you'll find what you need in O'Reilly books and on the O'Reilly Network. Introduction: To make computers and electronic devices as successful as today, the development of programming languages is the most important precondition. It would certainly be a different texture than some kind of impossible study of how important a language is, but better than a straight timeline. This means is known as a programming language. The first versions of Visual Basic were intended to target Windows 3. Projectable of Programming Language History Timeline (Zoom in to show) 2. Before 1940. The complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. Although the two programming languages of Java and JavaScript sound very similar, they are not the same thing. The latest standard "IEC 1131-3" has tried to merge plc programming languages under one international standard. By adjusting the slider, the user could change the mix of his own preferences and those of the author. Hart, and Mike Levin. Alternative meanings: Timeline is also the title of a 1999 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton and also the title of a 2003 film Timeline, based on the novel. All rights reserved. Diode and transistor technology formed the basis of the electronic switches and the switching time came down to around 0. Technological advancement — inventing new components and miniaturizing them — came much later. Increased the variety of people who could enter the realm of programming. Newer versions such as Ada 95 and Ada 2012 have been created by Tucker Taft. Which accurately describes the advantages of high-level programming languages over low-level programming languages? Select all that apply. Timeline of C Programming History. The only thing I'd like to see implemented is the ability to change the font size in the timeline tags and comment boxes. The many pieces that make up AI have been built and used for thousands of years in many cultures. To watch short videos that give you a verse by verse. A complete history of computing would include a multitude of diverse devices such as the ancient Chinese abacus, the Jacquard loom (1805) and Charles Babbage's ``analytical engine'' (1834). Compilers transform code from words and commands that are easy for a human to read into something the computer can. Saturday, May 12, 2018. In the early 1970s, Dennis Ritchie of Bell Laboratories was engaged in a project to develop a new operating system. Eras of AI language evolution. HISTORY OF LANGUAGE including Words on the brain, Origins of language, Linguistic groups, Language and race, Enclaves of language, Romance and Germanic, Linguistic evolution, Imperial tongues, New languages from old. Around the same time, in the 1970s and 1980s advancements in more powerful programming languages such as C, C++, and later Java were introduced. At first, the languages were codes. From static to dynamic. A History of C++: 1979− 1991 Bjarne Stroustrup AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 ABSTRACT This paper outlines the history of the C++ programming language. While only a few programming languages are appropriate for operating system work (such as Ada, BLISS, C, FORTRAN, and PL/I, the programming languages available with an operating system greatly influence the kinds of application programs available for an operating system. Unstructured languages include assembly and BASIC - these were unstructured in that you can jump to any line from anywhere and in general could do very clever things, but end up with a pile of spaghetti. That means that you can take a direct URL to a timeline (like you get with the "get link to preview" button) and put it in a post on a line by itself, and it should be embedded. The Modern History of Computing. Still, this list is in no way comprehensive. The same goes for pioneers such as Ken Thompson, Richard Stallman and Linus Torvalds, who have each made significant contributions to the open-source world. A Brief History of Language Posted by Malachi Rempen on Jun 22, 2015 in Language Learning Sometimes it’s hard for us humans to keep time in perspective. Are you an individual or business with a web page on any topic related to France -- arts, culture, entertainment, history, language, tourism, etc. 1964 The first computer to use integrated circuits, the IBM 360, is announced. History of Lua. In 1967, BCPL Language ( Basic CPL ) was created as a scaled down version of CPL As many of the features were derived from “B” Language that’s why it was named as “C”. Computer Science Timeline: History of computer science from 1939 to 1994. Programming as Design Rooted in Computer Assisted Design (CAD)‏ Ivan Sutherland invents “Sketchpad” in 1963 that draws pictures on a screen. Below, you can see the preview of the Computer Languages History (click on the white zone to get a bigger image):. The Programming Languages Genealogy Project. Aivosto now supports a broad range of programming languages. Earliest Devices Humanity has used devices to aid in computation for millennia; an example is the abacus. In 1843, she published a sequence of steps to perform using a computing machine designed by her friend, Charles Babbage. It’s a safe, fast, and interactive programming language that combines the best in modern language thinking with wisdom from the wider Apple engineering culture and the diverse contributions from its open-source community. Trigonometry is useful for a few science and navigation applications and occasionally in financial analysis; but for most students, it is learned and then never used. The Timeline History of the English Language Gary Judge 1439262241 9781439262245 The Timeline History of the English Language. Whether you are using a social media app on your smartphone or working with a cloud server’s API, the task relies heavily on a programming language. Machine language Assembly language Requires a compiler. Questions about using Go or announcements relevant to other Go users should be sent to golang-nuts. Programming languages genealogical tree. But from the earliest years of high-level languages, the Lisp family has represented a distinctive approach that is largely independent of the Algol-60 tradition. The source code and documentation for all releases of Lua is available in the download area. The history of the world isn't easily condensed, but the timeline here does a good job of hitting the high notes and most significant events of roughly 4,000 years from the beginnings of Hinduism to the freeing of Nelson Mandela. [3] Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Fifty years ago, each computer maker used its own programming languages to tell a computer what to do. A Brief History of #Web #Development. This was the era of the first generation languages. The conceptual modeling is divided into three decades: the 1970ies, the 1980ies and the 1990ies. Like early programming languages such as Fortran, Algol, Cobol and Lisp, assemblers have been available since the 1950s and the first generations of text based computer interfaces. Based on GitHub repositories, we build our own transition matrix after solving the flow optimization problem. A Short History of Software Graeme Philipson This document is the first draft of a chapter commissioned for a book on software development, to be published in 2004 by Routledge (more details as they come to hand). Made the first programming languages that computers use Was apart of IBM IBM704 was the first computer to run it 1968 AD - Intel Intel company founded Microprocessor created (Intel 4004 chip) 1975 AD - Microsoft Microsoft company founded by Bill Gates MS-DOS created Later created first point and click OS. discoverfrance. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. I think they originally wrote it for the History of Programming Languages conference, but they've since done it at OOPSLA and JAOO. There are more than 8,500 total programming languages, according to HOPL (History Of Programming Languages). Ultimately, this meant that the user had to know about TOPS-10 in order to use TOPS-20, and that high-level language programmers were denied access to many of TOPS-20's features. LinkedIn principal author Doug Winnie explains the basic history of programming and how programming languages have evolved over time to support evolutions in hardware and computer. When programmers discuss the relative merits of different programming languages, they often talk about them in prosaic terms as if they were so many tools in a tool belt—one might be more appropriate for systems programming, another might be more appropriate for gluing together other programs to accomplish some ad hoc task. 1964 - Third generation computers were introduced. A timeline of the history of programming, Statistics on programming languages. Programming languages. Python, just like Perl, is a high-level, multiparadigm programming language that was first implemented by Guido van Rossum in 1989. From 1959 to 1961, Hopper lead the team that invented COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language), the first user-friendly business computer software program. One cannot understand today's programming language spectrum without a good sense of the history of their evolution. I assume your question relates to the history of programming languages; in which case here is the Wikipedia article: Timeline of programming languages - Wikipedia If you meant something else by your question, then I don't understand the question. A short history of color theory Of all the subjects presented in this book, this part devoted to color theory might be the most perplexing one. Since 1995, Java has changed our world. 0 for Windows 3. It's great as a first language because it is concise and easy to read, and it is also a good language to have in any programmer's stack as it can be used for everything from web development to software development and scientific applications. It wasn’t a programming language in the modern sense. ” A paradigm is a way of doing something (like programming), not a concrete thing (like a language). The source code and documentation for all releases of Lua is available in the download area. it’s up to you to memorize the key. 3 million grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Jan 1, 1948. a High-level languages are more difficult to learn. Many are simply for teaching or language research. Timeline History of C language Features of C. This means is known as a programming language. The history of C#. However, it was suited for internet programming. O'Reilly: The History of Programming Languages A poster plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline. A timeline of the history of programming languages Source: TNMOC A giant timeline displays the history and development of many of the most popular programing languages, including Java, Python. C language was created for a specific purpose i. Compilers transform code from words and commands that are easy for a human to read into something the computer can. The actual term 'software' wasn't used until the late 1950s. During that time, it has evolved from a simple language with a small number of tags to a complex system of mark-up, enabling authors to create all-singing-and-dancing Web pages complete with animated images, sound and all manner of gimmicks. For a detailed timeline of events, see computing timeline. Jan 1, 1948. When programmers discuss the relative merits of different programming languages, they often talk about them in prosaic terms as if they were so many tools in a tool belt—one might be more appropriate for systems programming, another might be more appropriate for gluing together other programs to accomplish some ad hoc task. Grace Hopper headed a committee that developed a high-level business application language called COBOL. The rest of the function deals with exception handling, in case something should go wrong at any stage. © 2019 expertlead, Lindentor 196, VV GmbH. It is unfortunate because their long-standing familiarity will make it hard for us to understand and adopt new programming. Programming language, Computing timeline, History of computing. History of Visual Basic The first version of visual basic, VB 1. The language is developed by Microsoft for the purpose of the COM programming model. New technologies continue to emerge, develop, and mature at a rapid pace. The latest standard "IEC 1131-3" has tried to merge plc programming languages under one international standard. SAIL PhD students Richard Paul and Bob Bolles develop WAVE, a robot programming system, and demonstrate computer controlled assembly of an automobile water pump. why not take the time to learn a new programming language?. HTML came from SGML, which stands for the Standard Generalized Markup Language, and was created at IBM by Charles F. Timeline History of C language Features of C. The Unix History and the Computer Languages History on the wall of Meik Teβmer's office in the Faculty for Economics of Bielefeld University in Germany -- august 10. It's all about abstraction. Programming as Design Rooted in Computer Assisted Design (CAD)‏ Ivan Sutherland invents “Sketchpad” in 1963 that draws pictures on a screen. Programming Language Categories. Guidelines. This entry surveys the history of these machines. The first programming languages predate the modern computer. Its collection includes more than two million works of art spanning five thousand years of world culture, from prehistory to the present and from every part of the globe. The name means Common Business Oriented Language. These examples indicate that the history of computer language selection should be viewed in light of both the nature of languages and the stakeholders that determine the lifetime of each language. Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. It covers the time when women worked as "human computers" and then as programmers of physical computers. All programming was done in absolute machine language, often by wiring up plugboards to control the machine's basic functions. Programming Languages timeline It is all about programming languages history and timeline Statistics. Visual Programming Languages: A Survey - This paper by Marat Boshernitsan includes an historical overview of some of the pioneering efforts in the field. In the spring of 2009, Roland Saekow had the good fortune of taking Professor Alvarez’s Big History course. The history of the solving of these problems is the history of the computer. It was primarily developed for use in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. Questions about using Go or announcements relevant to other Go users should be sent to golang-nuts. Unless it is specified, the date is for the first working implementation. Following the development of the first graphical Web browser, the Web became very popular, resulting in the Internet as we know it today. Here we take a look at the timeline of computer languages in PC history. PHP as it's known today is actually the successor to a product named PHP/FI. We have only opened this history section a few months ago. Let's take a brief walk through the history of programming to see how we got here and more objectively evaluate why functional programming may help solve some long-term issues. Discuss with your counselor the history of programming and the evolution of programming languages. Barron, Christopher Strachey, et al. It is based on an original diagram created by Eric Levenez (www. Thus, it is important to look at the timeline of the development of some of the major programming languages. Gosling, O. This timeline is by no means complete as it just includes 50 of the more than 2500 documented programming languages but these 50 languages can be considered to be the most important of them. In computer programming, BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code[1]) is a family of high level languages. Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages reusing execution history to accelerate web scripts meaning of a program over and above the semantics of the. We express our intentions in a programming language, and those statements are translated to instructions that the computer can understand • Languages are sometimes grouped into ‘generations,’ based on their distance from the computer’s native set of operations History of Computation – ISTA 130 v1. c High-level languages must be translated to machine code before they can be run. Top 5 Programming Languages For Machine Learning. History of C Programming Language. Programming language, Computing timeline, History of computing. Shortly after, Lisp was introduced. It is based on an original diagram created by Éric Lévénez (www. programming language PROLOG, which had been introduced. Computer programming has played an increasing role in our society and it is worth exploring the history as well as current-day uses. Birkbeck College Computation Laboratory,. 0 (a version for DOS existed as well), however it was not until version 3. It was on this day 40 years ago that two Dartmouth mathematics professors, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, launched their BASIC computing language with the help of many industrious undergraduates. About Swift¶. O'Reilly: The History of Programming Languages A poster plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline. From the first, the languages were codes. The project was funded by a $1. Griswold, et al. 2017 Extensions for Ranges TS (ISO/IEC TS 21425:2017) () This TS extends the C++ library to include ranges, a new, more powerful, abstraction to replace iterator pairs, along with range views, sentinel ranges, projections for on-the-fly transformations, new iterator adaptors and algorithms. Please, be patient. HTML is a product of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) which is a complex, technical specification describing markup languages, especially those used in electronic document exchange, document. A Brief History of Programming Languages This is based on the Wikipedia article Timeline of Programming Languages as it appeared on 2/15/18. Yes, C is the starting point for all languages, because C is the one of the best language ever developed and everything followed it, as C++, C# so on, due its simplicity and all. Basic language like ALGOL and COBOL-----1960's 2. In order for a computer to function, it requires some kind of computer program or software. Then it can predict in new. History Directory - Nomoz. 1958 - 1962 – Programming languages From 1958-1962 many programming languages were developed. During this period there were remarkable achievements in a number of sub-areas of the discipline, including the development of new computational tools and techniques and their application to problems in such areas as assembly robotics and natural language. •type system of a programming language associates types to the programing-language terms, resulting in a n:m relation between terms and types 2014-03-13 Stephan Missura – History of Functional Programming Languages: Static Type Systems 7 ∀α. I found it more useful than the Apple version because it had graph plotting and statistical analysis in the same package. Now there are more than 2,500 documented programming languages! O’Reilly has produced a poster called History of Programming Languages (PDF: 701K), which plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline. Derived from Pascal. The Second Generation (1959-1963). This page contains the History of Software Testing; a comprehensive overview of the history of software testing. This timeline is by no means complete as it just includes 50 of the more than 2500 documented programming languages but these 50 languages can be considered to be the most important of them. The language itself has been refined and is perhaps the most well-documented language of all. I’ve tried to avoid recounting detailed. History of Programming Languages CS181: Programming Languages. MAD translated simple commands into a complex, machine language. O'Reilly: The History of Programming Languages A poster plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline. Overview of programming languages Narrative. History of programming languages. CPL is common Programming Language. When the Web first started, there were only static HTML pages. Submitted on - 2016-04-16 06:45:57. Different programming languages provide different set of reserved keywords, but there is one important & common rule in all the programming languages that we cannot use a reserved keyword to name our variables, which means we cannot name our variable like int or float rather these keywords can only be used to specify a variable data type. Other topics include systems development methods, management information systems, programming languages, communications, networks, application software, the Internet and career opportunities. Stephen White's 'A Brief History of Computing' - Summary Timeline. Today, with technology such a part of our daily lives, we take it for granted that we can be connected and access applications and content anywhere, anytime. The History of Java Technology See a text-version of the Java History Timeline. C omputers truly came into their own as great inventions in the last two decades of the 20th century. Get started today. Earliest Devices Humanity has used devices to aid in computation for millennia; an example is the abacus. Vladimir Vacic, University of California at Riverside 2 Tree of programming languages history. This means is known as a programming language. net/your_site" for less than $10 per month!. The Unix History and the Computer Languages History on the wall of Meik Teβmer's office in the Faculty for Economics of Bielefeld University in Germany -- august 10. Listing of major computer history events during the 1980s to 1990. First draft: August 1999 Revised: August 2002 c Peter Grogono 1999, 2002 Department of Computer Science. The magazine archive includes every article published in Communications of the ACM for over the past 50 years. Animation is everywhere—in our homes, schools, work, and everywhere there’s a screen. She envisioned machine-independent programming languages, and led the creation of the first widespread programming language - COBOL. History of Programming Languages. This chapter is mostly about the history of functional programming, so for people. The Programming Languages Genealogy Project. But from the earliest years of high-level languages, the Lisp family has represented a distinctive approach that is largely independent of the Algol-60 tradition. builds on a rich history that extends back to 1972 when Seymour Cray, the legendary "father of supercomputing," founded Cray Research. Few or no remedial services are available, and students are generally held at the same grade. The origins of pgen. The history is told in sections of decades from the 1960s to the present day. While the history of jazz dance is vast and the influencers above have undoubtedly influenced the people you know and love today, there is an entirely new movement of motion that we associate “jazz,” with today. I can change the font sizes for the timeline itself, but not the actual tags and comments. Michigan Algorithm Decoder (MAD), a new computer language, is developed by Computing Center staff to make computers more accessible. But as an added bit of knowledge, it is best to learn about computing history, especially the origin of the 4GL languages, C++ languages, and other famous programming languages then and now. Hence, the above programming languages are known to be the best ones of 2019. But from the earliest years of high-level languages, the Lisp family has represented a distinctive approach that is largely independent of the Algol-60 tradition. Check out a list of 256 programming languages, from ABC to Z shell. Description. The language is developed by Microsoft for the purpose of the COM programming model. The history of java starts with Green Team. The great challenge for early computing was figuring out how to mechanize logic and mathematical computation. Programmers at the Console of a UNIVAC I, with Unityper and Tape Drives This website is based on an exhibition that was on view at the National Museum of American History from March 17, 2011 to February 12, 2013. Ever since the invention of Charles Babbage’s difference engine in 1822, computers have required a means of instructing them to perform a specific task. This means is known as a programming language. Francis Bacon - English Writer. C++ isn’t as big as some people imagine. C is one of the most important programming languages in the history of computing. It wasn’t a programming language in the modern sense. The two first product projects using Erlang are started. No primitives (no ints, booleans etc) No control structures (no for, while, if etc). Its collection includes more than two million works of art spanning five thousand years of world culture, from prehistory to the present and from every part of the globe. The multifaceted programming languages available today allow for pretty much anything to be created online or offline. Let's take a look at the life of the Ruby programming language. The history of programming languages goes far back - all the way back to 1883 when Ada Lovelace created the first algorithm for the Analytical Engine. This timeline includes fifty of the more than 2500 documented programming languages. Operating systems were unheard of. I think they originally wrote it for the History of Programming Languages conference, but they've since done it at OOPSLA and JAOO. The currency of markup languages is text. In a world of increasing inter-connectivity, programming languages form the foundation. c High-level languages must be translated to machine code before they can be run.